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MYTHS AND REALITIES ABOUT THE TREATMENT OF SEXUAL INADEQUACIES
BAPNA, J.S. (Institute of Human Behaviour & Allied Sciences)

Sexual inadequacies cause a lot of psychological burden in the society. Majority of cases are labelled and disposed as psychological problems. Common causes of sexual inadequacies among men include erectile dysfunction, diminished sexual desire, and premature ejaculation. One of the major breakthroughs in this area is the introduction of sildenafil (Viagra). It has been successfully used in the treatment of erectile dysfunction. In general, it works in 80 percent men with erectile dysfunction. The outcome may not be as good in drinkers and smokers, and those who eat fatty meals. There is no evidence of its action in a normal person. There is no evidence of its action on women though there are some claims that it increases blood circulation in the pelvic region and may facilitate vaginal secretions. The scientific studies have clearly shown that it does not affect sexual desire. It is effective in men with diabetes, hepatitis and multiple sclerosis, in spinal injuries. It has brought a great amount of social change and reduced the psychological burden. The implications of its use are discussed.


SPIRITUALISM FOR GLOBAL HEALTH
BHATIA, Prem (Viswa Bharti Yoga Sansthan)

Spiritualism is a part of human psyche, particularly in. India. It is not religion, it is not ritualism. Fortunately, we Indians have inherited it from age-old values and thoughts. The single most important gift of India to the world is spiritualism just as contribution of the West is in the field of Modern Sciences. Unfortunately Indian spiritual thoughts have been greatly distorted by religious ritualism, superstitions and dogmas. As a result an average educated person equates it with religious customs and rigidity of thoughts and traditions. He, therefore, runs away from his own self and his spiritual heritage. The time has come that we rediscover ourselves. It is important for students of psychology in India to study spiritualism, its role in human development and the part it plays in physical, mental and social health.

PSYCHOLOGICAL ASPECTS IN PARKINSON'S DISEASE
BHATIA, Sangeeta (Gargi College) & GUPTA, Ashum (University of Delhi)

Patients with Parkinson's Disease (P.D.) were studied through structured interviews to explore the relationship of motoric, cognitive, interpersonal and affective functioning with onset and severity of disease. Results revealed that early onset patients had experienced significantly greater interpersonal and affective problems than the patients with late onset of disease. However, there were no significant differences between early and late on set of motoric and cognitive problems, global cognitive functioning and depression and between genders. Self-reported motoric, cognitive, interpersonal, affective problems and depression were found to be significantly greater in severe as compared to moderate P.D. patients. Global cognitive functioning and daily-life functional activities were found to be significantly poorer in severe as compared to moderate P.D. patients. Severity of disease was significantly correlated with motoric, cognitive, interpersonal, affective and global cognitive functioning and depression. The problems of P.D. patients are not restricted to the motoric domain (as focussed by clinicians) but are multidimensional in nature. Therefore, in clinical management of this illness, all factors need to be taken into account.


SOCIAL CHANGE AND WOMEN'S WELL BEING: A NARRATIVE ANALYSIS
CHAUDHURY, Kavita. K. & MISRA, G. (University of Delhi)

Well being as a personal/psychological experience extends far beyond physical dimensions in that it is related to the self and is primarily determined by the cultural and historical standards of the evolutionary epochs of a society. As a state to be achieved, well being is an experience of balance - in terms of happiness, personal attainment and ambition, but it varies in societies with different cultural backgrounds. To understand well being, we must first remember that it is not a stable ideal rather the orientation of a particular order which may be appropriate in one context but may be a stumbling block in the other. The move from a collectivist orientation to a modernist individualist selfhood redesigns life story with its own excitement, challenge and tension. This results in a reconfiguration of the self that transforms the entire individual existence and redefines goals and priorities. Implications of this change for well being of women are discussed using narratives.


LIVING WITH A CHRONIC DISEASE:
THE ROLE OF CULTURAL BELIEFS IN PSYCHOLOGICAL ADJUSTMENT
DALAL, Ajit K. (University of Allahabad)

Cultural beliefs significantly shape patients' responses to the chronic disease they suffer from. These beliefs not only provide an understanding 'o of the disease but also facilitate the process of psychological adjustment. The present series of studies conducted on hospital patients, suffering from chronic diseases, aimed to explore patients' construal of the causes of their illness and its bearings on their psychological adjustment. Patients suffering from tuberculosis, MI, cancer and orthopaedic problems were interviewed two or three times, during their hospitalization. The findings consistently revealed that Indian patients understand their illness more often in terms of metaphysical than medical factors. The linkages of these casual beliefs with psychological adjustment varied with the nature of disease. The implications of these findings for providing care to patients with chronic diseases are discussed.

ABSTRACTS
(SAAP-Delhi Con.-1999)
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