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Depressive Symptoms as Related to Sex, Profession and Marital Status
Nazma Afroze, Sultana Zakiya Huq and Md. Mozammel Huq
Department of Psychology, University of Rajshahi, Bangladesh

This study was an attempt to investigate empirically the amount of depression experienced by males and females as related to their professional and marital status. The study used the Bengali version of Expressive Questionnaire developed by Blatted et al (1976). The study focused on two levels of sex (Male/Female), two levels of profession (employed/unemployed) and two levels of marital status (married/unmarried). Mean differences between different comparison groups show that unemployed females, both married and unmarried, expressed higher degree of depression in comparison to employed males irrespective of marital status.

An Empirical Investigation of Intergenerational Gap Relating to Values and other Personality Variables
Shawkat Ara                                           Balaka Kabir
Dept of Psychology                                  Mudur Bux-
University of Rajshahi                              Home Economics College
Rajshahi, Bangladesh                              Rajshahi, Bangladesh

This study was conducted to explore the phenomenon of intergenerational gap between teachers and students of different educational institutions of Rajshahi city as related to value systems and I-E control personality variables within the frame work of socio-cultural back ground in Bangladesh. The sample consisted of 150 respondents equally divided into older teachers, younger teachers and students. Thus each group consisted of 50 subjects. The findings revealed three different types of value patterns among three groups. Students were found to be more internally controlled as compared to teachers. On the other hand younger teachers were found to be more internally controlled as compared to older teachers.

Study of Optimism Bias in a Pakistani Sample
Shazia Haris, Fatima Jinnah Woman University, Pakistan
and R.F. Soames Job University of Sydney, Australia

Optimism Bias is claimed to immunize people against health messages and affect adoption of health protective behaviours. Idea of Optimism Bias as a robust factor causing low adoption of precautionary measures and high risk taking is not only supported by American Research but Optimism Bias seems to be a general characteristic of Australian population also. Since Western studies support existence of Optimism Bias as a general characteristic of population, it was felt worthwhile to explore existence of this construct in a culturally and religiously different environment. Such research is useful in, (a) theoretical understanding of the construct, (b) establish validity of this construct as a general characteristic of population regardless of culture and religion, and (c) predicting health related behaviours. A study to measure optimism bias in Pakistan revealed, that the sample (both males and females) showed significant optimism bias for both negative life and general life events, however, significant pessimism for positive life events Optimism Bias was higher among smokers and males than females. Optimism bias was also computed for four different levels of education where participants with masters and higher degrees showed high optimism for general life; however, females with higher education showed significant pessimism for positive life events.

Cultural differences in Aggression : A case study in Bangladesh
A.K.M. Rezanur Rahman and Md. Mozammel Huq
Department of psychology, University of Rajshahi, Rajshahi

An investigation was made to explore the cultural differences in aggressive behaviour in the context of Bangladesh. The sample was selected from two cultures such as Bengali culture and Santal culture in the district of Rajshahi. A total of f 20 respondents was randomly selected from Santal and Bengali populations. A factorial design representing two levels of cultural group (Bengali/Sanlal), two levels of sex (Male/Female) and two levels of residential background (Urban/Rural) was used in the study. A Measure of Aggressive Behaviour (MAB) was used for data collection. The data were analysed using Analysis of Variance. It was found that Bengali respondents were more aggressive as compared to Santal respondents. Urban-Rural and male-female differences were also observed. Thus, culture emerged as an important factor in aggression.

Environmental Factors causing mental health problem : A female case of major Depressive Disorder from old Dhaka City
Ayesha Amin and Mohammad Mahmudur Rahman
Department of Clinical Psychology, University of Dhaka

The Old Dhaka City is a place located at the southern part of Dhaka City near the river Buriganga. The physical environment of this old Dhaka City comprises - high population density, congested and under developed locality, noise pollution, insufficient room and space per person at home, narrow road causing continuous traffic jam, dusty and smoky due to industrial pollution inside residential area. The social environment of this area is also poor which consists of lack of education, superstitions ideas, quarrelling attitudes and behaviour. A female case of 18 year old who had breast tumour, had an operation, was also found suffering from mental health problem, specially major depressive disorders, which could be attributed to the poor environmental factors of old Dhaka City. In this paper this case will be presented to demonstrate the various environmental factors typical to the old Dhaka City, which contributed to the development of mental health problems in this young woman.

(BPA & SAAP Con. 2001)
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