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A Study of Attitude Towards Sex, Sexuality and Awareness of HIV/Aids Among out -of-School Slum Adolescents in Gujarat
Urmi Nanda Biswas and C. N. Daftuar
Department of Psychology, M. S. University, Baroda, India

This paper is a part of a large project titled 'A Study of Sexuality and Health Seeking Behaviour Among Out-of-school Adolescents in Anand Slum' which was sponsored by Population Council, New York. The objective of this paper is to explore and understand the attitudes towards sex, sexual behaviour and sexual practices among out of school adolescents residing in urban slums and to see how it related to their knowledge, awareness and understanding of HIV/STD and AEDs. The sample comprised of 300 adolescents including both male and female, early and late adolescents. The sample also includes both school-dropouts and never-been-to school adolescents. Data were collected through both qualitative and quantitative methods using focus group discussions, in-depth interviews and survey techniques. The findings suggest that the boys have more liberal attitude towards premarital sex as well as other aspects of sexuality compared to girls. The girls on the other hand when approve of boys rights and are positive towards male sexuality, report a very conservative standard for themselves. Interestingly, a lot of disparity was found out between the attitude towards sex and actual sexual behaviour among the adolescents. In contrast to the prevalence of active sexual experience among adolescents, their knowledge about HIV/AEDs was very limited. The findings were discussed in the context of community perception and socialization as well exposure to education.

Gender Differences in Child Rearing Practices as a Function of Social Change
Shahuria Enam
Department of Psychology, University of Rajshahi, Bangladesh.

This study attempted an empirical investigation on gender differences in child rearing practices in the perspective of social change. The sample of the study constituted of 60 respondents. They were randomly selected from two upazilas in Rajshahi and Naogaon districts. Thus this study utilized two samples. Each sample was divided into parents from developed areas and parents from undeveloped areas. A questionnaire pertaining to the issues of child rearing practices was administered on each respondent individually. They were asked to express their preferences for child rearing practices in case of their sons and daughters on a five-point scale ranging from total agreement to total disagreement. The results were calculated using t-test. The percentages were also computed. It was found that in both the upazilas the parents from undeveloped areas expressed significantly higher discriminative attitudinal preference regarding child rearing practices for boys and girls as compared to the parents from developed areas. It was concluded that social changes in terms of economic, educational, political and social development might account for discriminative attitudinal preferences for boys and girls in child rearing practices.

Managing Mother's Helplessness and Socio Psychological Forces to Control the Population in India.
A. M. Khan
Department of Social Sciences NIHFW, Munirka, New Delhi, India.

Family Planning Behaviours (FPBs) across the country are not uniform because of gross differences in the socio-cultural phenomena such as age of marriage, status, of women education, values attached to the education of the children, preference for particular sex, male child syndrome, concern for mother and mothering, gender biases, values and beliefs regarding various health practices such as care for pregnant women, delivery, immunization, delivery practices, use of colostrums, weaning, food habits etc. are not identical across the country. All these effectively contribute (directly or indirectly) to the family planning behaviours and inter state differences on indices of health and family welfare can be explained and understood by a framework incorporating all these socio-cultural variables. In recent years, peoples knowledge and attitude towards life and aspirations have charged along with their values regarding children happiness. A study by Khan and Tekhre (1996) regarding income generating activities and family planning behaviours very clearly reveal that a majority of uneducated women in the rural areas of Harayana, Uttar Pradesh and Bihar are not resistant to family planning rather they are helpless owing to lack of effective knowledge of family planning methods. The majority of the mothers reported that they don't want any more children, but they don't know what to do (helplessness) to prevent pregnancy. The intricate relationship amongst motivation, behaviour and communication need to be critically examined. And a single track theory of communication (i. e. information and communication) leading to motivation need to be looked in the context of prevailing socio-cultural and psychological circumstances. A huge expenditure against IEC to be made more judicious. As the psychology of people regarding family planning appears to be changing, the new strategy should be to offer easily available quality health and family planning services. People should be motivated to adopt small family norms.

A study on Internal-External Locus of Control of the Chakmas as Related to Education, Residence and Gender Differences
Md. Kamal Hossain and Dr. Md. Mozammel Huq
Department of Psychology University of Rajshahi, Bangladesh

The present study was an attempt to conduct an empirical investigation about the internal-external locus of control of the Chakmas as related to education, residence and gender differences in the district of Chittagong Hill tracts in Bangladesh. A stratified random student sample was used. The sample was constituted of 240 respondents. A 2x2x2 factorial design representing two levels of education (Graduate/Undergraduate), two levels of residence (Urban/Rural) and two levels of gender (Male/Female) was utilized. A measure of Internal-External Locus of Control Scale was used for data collection. The results were calculated using Analysis of Variance. Statistically significant findings were reported for main effects as well as interaction effects. Thus, the male respondents with undergraduate level of education having urban residential background were found significantly more internally controlled compared to their counterparts.

(BPA & SAAP Con. 2001)
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