Childhood Disintegration Disorder : Some Case Studies
Rumiz Uddin Ahmed
National Institute of Intellectually Disabled
4A Eskaton Garden, Dhaka, Bangladesh
Pervasive developmental disorders are characterized by severe and pervasive impairment in several areas of development: such as reciprocal social interaction skills, communication skills, or the presence of stereotyped behaviour. The qualitative impairments that define these conditions are distinctly deviant relative to the individual's developmental level or mental age. These disorders are usually evident in the first years of life and are often associated with some degree of mental retardation and sometimes observed with a diverse group of other general medical conditions (e.g., chromosomal abnormalities, congenital infections structural abnormalities of the central nervous system). These disorders are autistic disorder, Rett's disorder, childhood disintegration disorder, Asperger's disorder and pervasive developmental disorder not otherwise specified. Childhood disintegrative disorder is very close to well known autistic disorder. The essential feature of childhood disintegrative disorder is a marked regression in multiple areas of functioning following a period of at least 2 years of apparently normal development (where as, in case of Autistic disorder, there is typically no period of unequivocally normal development). After 2 years of life (but before age 10 years) the child has a clinically significant loss of previously acquired skills in at least two of the following areas: expressive or receptive language, social skills or adaptive behaviour, bowel or bladder control, play, or motor skills. Restricted, repetitive and stereotyped patterns of behaviour, interests and activities are also seen among these children. Various nonspecific neurological symptoms or signs may be noted. There seems to be an increased frequency of EEG abnormalities and seizure disorder. Although, according to the DSM-VI document, it appears likely that the condition is the result of some insult to the developing central nervous system, but no precise mechanism has been identified. The condition is occasionally observed in association with a general medical condition that might account for the developmental regression. In most instances, however, extensive investigation does not reveal such a condition. But the case histories presented in the paper show that the symptoms of Childhood Disintegrative Disorder were precipitated by specific psychological factors. Those psychological factors have been analyzed in the light of Bowlby's theory on affectional bond for better understanding of the situation.
Attitude Towards Technology Transfer in Bangladesh :
Case Study of Textile Industries
Md. Abu Taher
Chittagong College, Chittagong
Azizur Rahman, University of Dhaka, Bangladesh
The present study was undertaken to assess the attitude of owners, managers and workers towards technology transfer in Bangladesh and to ascertain the barriers perceived by them in the transfer and use of modern technology. The sample comprised of 216 respondents (17 owners, 64 managers and 135 workers) taken from 17 private textile industries of Bangladesh running under auto, semi-auto and manual systems. While the organizations were selected purposively, the respondents within the organizations were selected by stratified random sampling technique. Data were collected by means of interview using 'interview schedules'. The collected data were analysed by employing two-way ANOVA, Pearson's correlation coefficient and some descriptive statistics. Results revealed that : (1) attitude towards technology transfer differed significantly and independently by respondent categories and levels of technology but the two-way interaction effect was not significant, (2) scores on attitude towards technology transfer were significantly and positively correlated with age and years of schooling of the respondents; and (3) financial insolvency in importing new technology, bureaucratic complexity and shortage of raw materials were the three major barriers in technology transfer. These findings have been interpreted in the socio-cultural context of Bangladesh.
Mental Health in Garments Industry
Nihar Ran] an Sorcar
Department of Psychology
University of Dhaka, Bangladesh
There has been a mushroom growth of Garments Industry in Bangladesh after the Independence of Bangladesh in 1971 and this industry is the major export earner. The Garments Industry in Bangladesh employs more than 15 lac workers of which 90% are women at their prime age. But there has been very few systematic inquiries to understand the mental health and working environment in the garment factories in Bangladesh. The recent incidents of fire in a few garment factories in and around Dhaka compelled us to look into the working environment of the garment factories in Bangladesh and examine the sources of stress of the workers in more detail. The present paper is based on the findings of two empirical investigations (Rahman & Sorcar 1990, Sorcar & Rahman 1993) and recent investigative reports in the news papers.
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