Individuals carry with them a history of personal and interpersonal experiences that shape their thoughts and feelings and influence their behaviour in a relationship. Every person has a particular generalized orientation towards others which can be characterized as his/her attachment style (Collins and Read, 1994). Attachment theory is concerned with the bond that develops between the child and caretaker and the consequences it has for the child's emerging self-concept and developing view of the social world. The child's early attachment relationships with caretakers shape important beliefs about the self and social world, the child's early attachment relationships with caretakers shape important beliefs about the self and social world, which then guide relationships in adulthood. According to this view, infant attachment behaviours are controlled by a distinct goal-directed behavioural system, which has a "set-goal" of maintaining proximity to a nurturing adult and a biological function of promoting the child's security and survival (Bowlby, 1980). Attachment researchers have suggested that the "set-goal" of the attachment system is not simply physical proximity,, but more broadly to maintain "felt-security" (Bischof 1975, Bretherton 1985, Sroufe and Waters 1977). The attachment system in adults is believed to function in much the same way as the infant system with the set goal of "felt-security". This study attempted to investigate the relation between attachment style (secure, avoidant, anxious/ambivalent), dimensions of attachment (depend, anxiety, close), self-esteem, interpersonal competence and socio-emotional adjustment among adults. The sample consisted of 100 adult participants. The following instruments were administered: Adult Attachment Style by Collins and Read (1991), Self-esteem scale by Rosenberg, M. (1965), Interpersonal Competence Questionnaire (relationship initiation, negative assertion, self-disclosure, conflict management and emotional support) by Buhrmester, D. (1988), and Socio-emotional Questionnaire (sociability, hostility, hostility and anxiety/depression) by Buhrmester, D. (1992). Pertinent statistical analyses were computed.
Drug Abuses among Young People of Nepal: Psycho - Social Observation
Niranjan Prasad Upadhyay
Senior Psychologist Public Service Commission, Nepal
This is a theoretical paper based on Psycho-Social observation of young drug abusers of Nepal. It highlights the drug related behaviour among the youths of Nepal. Specially, drug creates distorted perceptions and causes hallucination. It is a social cancer which affects society and diffuses slow poison to its members. Drug addiction is a serious problem in the society and SAARC Countries. In Nepal the younger generation has also been influenced by the western's Hippie culture. They use drugs for mind expansion and pleasure. Asian countries have experienced such epidemics in the late 1980's and this trend is continuing across the late 1990's. In Nepal, majority of drug users start taking marijuana and phensidyl between the age of 15 and 20. Also Ministry of Home Affairs of Nepal highlights the difficulties and financial constraints to eradicate the wild growth of cannabis plants. High percentage of addicts in Kathmandu use heroin. Poly drug abusers (using heroin, hashish & ganja) have been found in significant percentage. Almost, 40% of the drug users are already affected by HIV/AIDS and Hepatitis. So it has become a major problem in Nepal. Researches have shown that the Nepali drug delinquency arises due to parental influences.
Especially, Nepalese youth addicts come from different strata of the society. The youth of the upper income groups are more seriously indulged in drug addiction. Drug related research finding has highlighted that drug users in Kathmandu spend Rs. 5 million a day. The picture is very serious and alarming. Some Non-governmental Organizations are engaging themselves to create public awareness programme in connection of drug related diseases. Actually, there is as yet no proper co-ordination between NGOs and governmental sectors. I hope this conference will provide some guidelines to fight the menace in this region. I think the battle against drugs can be won only through our collective effort.
Cognitive Appraisal Strategies by Mothers of Mentally Retarded Children
Rukhsana Kausar and Mariam Farooq
Department of Applied Psychology
University of the Punjab, Pakistan.
This research examined implication of providing care to a mentally retarded child. Mother's cognitive appraisal of their child's mental disability and the way they cope with demands of care giving was studied. The sample comprised of 40 mothers who had been providing care to children with moderate or severe level of mental retardation. Stress Appraisal Measure (SAM) and Coping Strategies Questionnaire (CSQ) were used to assess cognitive appraisal and coping of mothers. Interview schedule was used as a method of data collection. Data were analyzed using correlation and regression analyses. Results revealed that mothers perceived their child's disability as uncontrollable and of high personal significance for them. Mothers employed significantly more avoidance strategies to cope with their child's mental disability. There was a relationship between mother's cognitive appraisal and strategies they employed to cope. Findings of this research have very important implications for health professionals, rehabilitation services providers arid families of mentally retarded children.
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