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Influence of Self-Efficacy on Academic Attainment in a Group of Primary School Students
Anjali Ghosh
Indian Statistical Institute
Kolkata, India

The purpose of the study was to find out the influence of self-efficacy on academic attainment in a group of primary school students. The subjects of the study were 76 class IV students selected randomly from three schools situated around Calcutta. Students' self-efficacy judgments in the area of reading comprehension and arithmetic were taken and their actual performance on the same tasks were also measured later on. The results indicate that students are able to judge properly their capabilities which are reflected in their performances. Linear regression analysis indicated that academic attainment of the students can be predicted by their efficacy judgments. The girls were found to be more efficacious but quite a number of them overestimated their judgments. In-depth analysis for a small group of students indicated that students' marks in school examination were also significantly related with their efficacy judgments.

Ethnic Muslims Identity in Global Perspective
Nurjahan Begum and M. G. Husain
Jamia Millia Islamia
New Delhi, India

Although Muslim population in the world is over one billion, they belong to different racial, linguistic, ethnic and culture background and also hail from different socio-economic class. They are a large majority, microscopic minority, advantaged, deprived and so on. Thus their identity differs in respect of their background. An ethnic identity refers to the degree to which one feels he/she belongs to a particular ethnic group and how they influence one's feelings, perceptions, and behavior (Dusek, 1996). However, the term 'ethnic' does not equate with race alone as it refers to different sub-ordinate groups of people in a different society. Muslims are in large majority in the world and also are in small minority in different countries. Their positions in the society, their socio-economic conditions, education, status and geo-positions in the society, their socio-cultural background affect the development of their identity. This research report is based on a series of study of Muslim identity from different nations like India, Pakistan, Bangladesh, Malaysia, Mediterranean countries, South-eastern Nations and U.K. Identity Scale developed by Husain (1985) measuring different dimensions of identity, namely cultural, linguistic, religious, national and racial, was administered to 1000 people from above mentioned countries over a period of time. The respondents were mainly contacted in the U.K, India and Malaysia. Data obtained were analyzed with the help of different statistical techniques and also by securing percentages of scores. The main feature of the results showed that minority status, deprivation, threat to life, suppression by majority groups and socio-cultural conditions influence the identity scores significantly. The results depicting identity scores of Muslims belonging to the nations under study have been mentioned in detail. Cultural impacts on different dimensions of identity have also been established by the present findings.

Intelligence, Creativity and Achievement Motivation : 
A comparative study of Indian and Indonesian Majority and Minority Community
M. G. Husain and Khairuddin Siregar
Jarnia Millia Islamia
New Delhi, India

This study compared Hindus and Muslims both as minority and majority groups form culturally advantaged and disadvantaged conditions on the indices of Intelligence, Creativity and Achievement motivation. Sample drawn for the study were from advantaged and disadvantaged background in two countries, India and Indonesia. In other words, the study was carried out on Indian and Indonesian subjects. Seven hundred and twenty class IX and X pupils between 16 and 18 years of age form Muslim and Hindus from Delhi (India) and Bali province of Indonesia constituted the sample. The former group was minority in India and majority in Indonesia and later were minority in Indonesia and majority in India. All the subjects were administered achievement motivation scale, intelligent test and a Battery of Creativity instruments. Scores on all three measures of this factorial study were analyzed with the help of analysis of variance and t-test. Coefficient of correlation was also computed to see the interrelationships among different scores of the groups. The results showed that culturally advantaged groups had significant edge over their disadvantaged counterparts in their scores on all the variables. The individuals belonging to the majority groups in both the countries showed significantly higher score than the minority groups. However, the Indian Muslim minority showed significantly lower scores on the entire dimension in comparison to Hindu majority in India and Hindu minority in Indonesia. The scores of all the groups on different factors were found to be significantly correlated. The results support the viewpoints that minority status and cultural disadvantages adversely affect intelligence, creativity and achievement motivation scores.

(BPA & SAAP Con. 2001)
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